IITs were built with a vision to provide technical personnel of international calibre, who would act as leaders in technology in independent India. Established in 1958 as the second in chain, IIT Bombay was the first to be set up with foreign assistance. The funds came from UNESCO in the form of rouble funds from Soviet Union. In 1961, the Parliament decreed IITs as "Institutes of National Importance". Since then, IIT Bombay has grown from strength to strength to emerge as one of the top technical universities in the world. At present, Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Doctoral programmes are offered by Aerospace Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering, Earth Sciences, Energy Science & Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science Departments and by Interdisciplinary groups in Industrial Engineering and Operations Research and Systems and Control Engineering. The Industrial Design Centre of the Institute offers a 4-year Undergraduate B.Des in Design, a 2year M.Des. Programme in Industrial Design, Visual Communication, Animation, Interaction Design, Mobility and Vehicle Design and a Ph.D. Programme in Design. M.Sc. and Ph.D. programmes in Applied Geology and Applied Geophysics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, M.Sc. Programme in Applied Statistics and Informatics are offered by the respective Departments. The Department of Physics also offers a 4year B.Tech. Programme in Engineering Physics. The Humanities and Social Sciences Department offers doctoral programmes and a 2year M.Phil programme. The Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering (CSRE) offers a 2year M.Tech. Programme in Geoinformatics & Natural Resources Engineering and doctoral programmes. The Departments of Physics, Energy Science and Engineering, Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering are also offering M.Sc. Ph.D Dual degree programmes and their admissions are through JAM. The Institute offers M.Tech. in Technology and Development offered by CTARA and also offers a doctoral programme, Ph.D in Nano Technology offered by CRNTS. The Institute offers Cross Departmental M.Tech programme in Materials, Manufacturing & Modelling (MMM) offered by Mechanical Engineering, Met. Engineering & Mat. Sci. & Mathematics. The Shailesh J. Mehta, School of Management offers a 2year Master of Management programme, a doctoral programme and an EMBA programme. The Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering offers M.Sc. and Ph.D. programmes in Biotechnology, M.Tech. and Ph.D. programmes in Biomedical Engineering and M.Sc.Ph.D. Dual Degree Programme in Biotechnology. The Institute also has PG Dual Degree Programmes (M.Tech. + Ph.D.) in several disciplines. The Institute on an average admits 1131 candidates for the Undergraduate programmes and 1476 candidates for different Postgraduate and Doctoral programmes every year. Students from Bangladesh, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritius, Malaysia, Nepal, Palestine, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Yemen are also undergoing training in various programmes. IIT Bombay is noted for its strong research activity in varied areas of science and technology that are making substantial contributions to national mission programmes and projects in frontier technological areas. These include Climate studies, Disaster Management, Earthquake Engineering, Education through Information and Technology, Microwave Communication and Signal Processing, Nano electronics, Photovoltaic, Renewable and Nuclear Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power, Language Technologies to enable Indian languages on the Internet, Telecommunication, and several defence-related projects such as the prestigious Light Combat Aircrafts Programme, Missile Technology Development, High speed Aerodynamics, and Robotics etc. IIT Bombay has established strong research collaboration with Indian industry, government organisations, international industry and universities.IIT Bombay's research objective also includes development of products/technologies/processes and its transfer to society that benefit industry and people in their daily lives. Over the years, the institute has also created a niche for its innovative short-term courses through continuing education and distance education programmes. Many of our continuing education programme(CEP) courses are now well established worldwide and continue to attract large participation both from within and outside the country. SINE-Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, manages the Technology Business Incubator at IIT Bombay. SINE helps nurture technology-product based ventures promoted by any from the IIT community, thus enabling them to commercialise their research/products/business ideas by providing them the necessary infrastructure, soft support & mentoring services and by creating the desired ecosystem. Resently, a new research centre called "Wadhwani Research Centre in Biosciences and Bioengineering" was opened at IIT Bombay. The research at this centre will focus on Understanding Cell Motility and Cancer Invasion. A state-of-the-art "Chemistry Laboratory for Energy and Nanoelectronics" (CLEAN) was also launched at the institute by IIT Bombay and Applied Materials to develop new materials for advanced solar cells and electronics devices. Residents at IIT Bombay have the twin advantage of being located at the financial capital of India while enjoying the serene environs of the campus located at Powai, situated in the northern suburbs of Mumbai, in Western India. It is a fully residential institute, with all its students staying on campus. The students are accommodated in 16 hostels with in-house dining and excellent amenities for sports and other recreational facilities.