A Benchmarking Study of Selected ASET Oriented Universities in Africa and China

Summary of major findings

• With the similar intensity of government investment (Government Expenditure on Tertiary Education Institutions as a % of GDP), China’s Tertiary Education Enrolment Ratio has reached 26.7%, while for all involved African countries, this ratio is lower than 13%, revealing that the African higher education systems are still in the stage of elite higher education.

• China’s Gross Expenditure on R&D as a proportion of GDP is 1.8%, much higher than that of African countries (0.2%-0.4%). But when comparing the R&D expenditure in Higher Education sector as a percentage of GDP, the performance of the African countries is not worse than Chinese universities. The data shows that in Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania, most R&D activities happen in the higher education sector, while in China, 90% of R&D expenditure and R&D personnel are outside the Higher Education sector.

• The Percentage of Graduate Students for many African universities is still very low.

• The Ratio of Number of Doctoral Degree to Number of Doctoral Students for some African universities is extremely low, indicating serious issues of lack of completion.

• African universities performed significantly better than their Chinese peers on the indicator of share of Academic Staff (Teaching Related) with a Doctoral Degree.

• The staff/student ratio for several African universities is low.

• African universities did not perform well in research, as measured by the number of research staff, research income and research output.
Total Number of Students61081262622448475537745196183591833068288083172649858325799132
Number of Undergraduate Students41111162415228050335407170773128021933219042085236647224517281
Number of Master’s Students137567168031851774248343098716520991271193578091744
Number of Doctoral Students6223314210675645832924191695174712762319107
Number of Doctoral Degree Awarded1236106461422524023024036940022
A1:Gaston Berger University- Saint-Louis
A2:Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
A3:International Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering
A4:University of Abomey-Calavi
A5:Makerere University
A6:University of Dar Es Salaam
A7:University of Ghana