Academic Ranking of World Universities

Selection of Universities

The ranking list for ARWU - SUBJECT includes every institution that has any Nobel Laureates, Fields Medals, and Highly-Cited Researchers. In addition, major universities of every country with significant amount of papers indexed by Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) are also included. In total, more than 1200 institutions have been actually ranked in each subject field.

Definition of Subject Fields

Institutions are ranked in five subject fields, including Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Sciences and Economics/Business.

Ranking Criteria and Weights

Similar to ARWU, institutions are ranked according to their academic or research performance in each subject field. Ranking indicators include alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes, Fields Medals and Turing Awards, Highly Cited Researchers, papers indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI). A new indicator, the percentage of papers published in the top 20% journals of each field, was introduced.

For each indicator, the highest scoring institution is assigned a score of 100, and other institutions are calculated as a percentage of the top score. The distribution of data for each indicator is examined for any significant distorting effect and standard statistical techniques are used to adjust the indicator if necessary.

Scores for each indicator are weighted to arrive at a final overall score for an institution. The highest scoring institution is assigned a total score of 100, and other institutions are calculated as a percentage of the top total score. The scores are then placed in descending order.

Indicators and Weights for ARWU - SUBJECT
Code Weight Mathematics Physics Chemistry Computer Science Economics/
Business
Alumni 10% Alumni of an institution winning Fields Medals in Mathematics since 1961 Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Physics since 1961 Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Chemistry since 1961 Alumni of an institution winning Turing Awards in Computer Science since 1961 Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Economics since 1961
Award 15% Staff of an institution winning Fields Medals in Mathematics since 1971 Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Physics since 1971 Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Chemistry since 1971 Staff of an institution winning Turing Awards in Computer Science since 1971 Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Economics since 1971
HiCi 25% Highly cited researchers in Mathematics category. Highly cited researchers in Physics and Space Science category. Highly cited researchers in Chemistry category Highly cited researchers in Computer Science category Highly cited researchers in Economics/
Business Category
PUB 25% Papers Indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded in Mathematics fields Papers Indexed in Science Citation Index- Expanded in Physics fields Papers Indexed in Science Citation Index- Expanded in Chemistry fields Papers Indexed in Science Citation Index- Expanded in Computer Science fields Papers Indexed in Social Science Citation Index in Economics/
Business fields
TOP 25% Percentage of papers published in top 20% journals of Mathematics fields to that in all Mathematics journals Percentage of papers published in top 20% journals of Physics fields to that in all Physics journals Percentage of papers published in top 20% journals of Chemistry fields to that in all Chemistry journals Percentage of papers published in top 20% journals of Computer Science fields to that in all Computer Science journals Percentage of papers published in top 20% journals of Economics/
Business fields to that in all Economics/
Business journals

Definition of Indicators

Indicator Definition
Alumni indicates the total number of the alumni of an institution winning Fields Medals in Mathematics, Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry and Economics and Turing Awards in Computer Science. Alumni are defined as those who obtain bachelor, Master’s or doctoral degrees from the institution. Different weights are set according to the periods of obtaining degrees. The weight is 100% for alumni obtaining degrees in 2001-2010, 80% for alumni obtaining degrees in 1991-2000, 60% for alumni obtaining degrees in 1981-1990, 40% for alumni obtaining degrees in 1971-1980, and finally 20% for alumni obtaining degrees in 1961-1970. If a person obtains more than one degrees from an institution, the institution is considered once only.
Award indicates the total number of the staff of an institution winning Fields Medals in Mathematics, Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry and Economics and Turing Awards in Computer Science. Staff is defined as those who work at an institution at the time of winning the prize. Different weights are set according to the periods of winning the prizes. The weight is 100% for winners after 2011, 80% for winners in 2001-2010, 60% for winners in 1991-2000, 40% for winners in 1981-1990, and finally 20% for winners in 1971-1980. If a winner is affiliated with more than one institution, each institution is assigned the reciprocal of the number of institutions. For Nobel Prizes, if a prize is shared by more than one person, weights are set for winners according to their proportion of the prize.
HiCi indicates the number of highly cited researchers in twenty categories defined and provided by isihighlycited.com. These highly cited researchers are assigned to relevant subject fields according to the category which they belong to. If a researcher is listed in more than one category, his/her weight for each category is the reciprocal of the number of categories listed.

PUB indicates the total number of papers indexed by Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in 2012 and 2013. Only publications of 'Article' type is considered. Each paper published by an institution is assigned into relevant subject fields according to journals the paper was published in (Classification of Journal Categories). If a paper is published in a multi-assigned journal (which is assigned to more than one ISI category), it is divided into related groups.
TOP indicates the percentage of papers published in the top 20% journals of each subject field. Top 20% journals are defined as their impact factors in the top 20% of each ISI category according to Journal Citation Report, 2012. Papers in the top journals of each ISI category are then aggregated into subject fields and the TOP is calculated as the number of papers in the top 20% journals of a particular subject field to that in all journals of the field. A threshold was set for the minimum number of papers in each subject field for calculating TOP indicator. The threshold was defined as 10% of the average number of papers by the top three institutions in each subject field. If the number of papers of an institution does not meet the minimum threshold, the TOP indicator is not calculated for the institution and its weight is relocated to other indicators. Only publications of 'Article' type is considered.

Data Sources

Indicator Data Source
Nobel laureates http://www.nobelprize.org
Fields Medals http://www.mathunion.org/index.php?id=prizewinners
Turing Awards http://awards.acm.org
Highly cited researchers http://www.highlycited.com
Journal Citation Report, 2012. http://www.webofknowledge.com
Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Science Citation Index http://www.webofknowledge.com
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